As organizations seek to better embed security into DevOps and Agile software development, they’re going to need to find better ways of scaling security knowledge across cross-functional teams.

Gone are the days where the security team can hold all the relevant knowledge for an IT organization and personally enact all the security checks on software code or infrastructure hosting applications. There are too many new applications and features being deployed, too much infrastructure spun up and down daily.

Everyone needs to chip in, and the only way they can do that is if companies properly train members of cross-functional teams on what it means to deploy secure software.

Cross-functional DevOps teams—and even non-DevOps teams moving toward continuous delivery of software—need all their members to skill up with both generalized and specific security training. From developers to DevOps engineers to site reliability specialists to database professionals, everyone needs to understand how security considerations impact the risk of the overall IT ecosystem they operate within, and how these security concerns should shape the work they do day in and out.

Here are five ways to accomplish that:

First Raise the Bar on Security Awareness Across the Team

The goal of modern security training in the DevOps era should be two-fold. First, organizations should seek to elevate security awareness across all IT functions generally. Second, they should seek to train up an elite cadre of security champions with deeper levels of security knowledge who work in various capacities for the team.

The first objective of awareness isn’t to make everyone deep security experts, but instead to raise the overall bar for awareness about security from anyone that touches the continuous delivery/continuous integration (CI/CD) software pipeline. This includes developers, but also QA engineers, operations professionals, DBAs and more.

The second objective recognizes that in a DevOps environment that deputizes technologists of all types to execute on security strategy, there are going to be times where the organization risks watering down deep technical security competence in the trenches. Seeding teams with at least a handful of security champions with deeper levels of security knowledge as it applies to their specialty ensures that things don’t get overlooked.

DevOps depends on increased collaboration between IT roles and self-service. The challenge is as roles start to bleed into one another through deeper collaboration, individuals start to need a wider breadth of knowledge than ever before about how their actions impact the organization’s threat posture. Take developers, for example: so much of application security (APPSEC) training today is focused solely on secure coding techniques, without accounting for the reality that developers today are spinning up servers, containers and otherwise self-provisioning the infrastructure their software is running on.

Even when developers take the best secure coding training available, they may be missing a whole lot of knowledge about the dangers of security misconfiguration when they’re setting up their infrastructure.

There should be a core set of common knowledge that everyone needs to know about security principles: things like regulatory concerns, infrastructure issues commonly used tools, and so on.

This is would give your architects, developers, database administrators, and anyone else in the CI/CD world a common foundation of awareness. In this scenario, ideally they would all be asking themselves, “Is this the most secure way to do this task?”

At the same time, security champions who are more interested in the technical details of these issues should also have the opportunity to extend their learning path beyond the basics so they can bring greater technical knowledge to bear and act as a security resource for the rest of their team. Identifying and grooming these champions will ensure that the team has not only breadth but depth of knowledge as well.

Balance Traditional Training with Hands-On Learning Methods

Traditional training is still the best starting point for disseminating security knowledge across teams. Continuing professional education (CPE) classes and overviews are all relevant and help build a foundation of introductory awareness. They're not always the most exciting method of learning, but they are incredibly effective when paired with more advanced training.

At the same time, that traditional classroom training is more likely to stick with employees when supplemented with additional hands-on reinforcement. Security leaders hoping to build out security knowledge across the DevOps contingent should start exploring the benefits of gamification and simulation and how they can improve performance on the job.

Developers, IT operators, and architects are much more likely to appreciate the nuances of security risks when their book knowledge is paired with hands-on training in simulated environments or some kind of area where they can appreciate what they're defending against. Rather than just saying, "Academically, here's what SQL injection is, here's how to defensively code against it," it’s better to allow security champions to exploit those issues so they really understand them from all angles.

Tackle Role-Based Security Training

Even with a sophisticated blended learning experience, generic security training should only be the foundation for developing security champions within DevOps teams. A security champion program depends on training that’s tailored to specific roles. Not only that, this training needs to be designed for the new reality of collaborative DevOps-based roles, rather than the limited and siloed IT functions of years past.

Organizations can take a team’s security knowledge to the next level with tailored, prescriptive training based on specific roles. Once individuals have the basic education and once they have the hands-on experience, it pays to take the information about how they performed in these trainings and tell the trainee where they should focus next based on their job duties. So developers would get one suggested learning path, QAs another, infrastructure specialists a different one, and so on. By doing that, it’ll give every security champion a much deeper level of training applicable to his or her daily workflows.

The training needs to offer people the path to not necessarily turn into security staff but to learn at an elite level how security applies to their specific role. If teams can pepper even just a percentage of these elite security champions across each common role, these highly trained individuals can help their peers level up their skills organically as they work together on a daily basis.

Leverage Modularized Training

Many of the security principles taught to different roles will overlap so there’s no reason to reinvent the wheel with a brand new curriculum for every unique role. One way to do this is to develop a modularized training approach.

Modularized training breaks down certain principles into individual components of a curriculum library. From there an organization can then mix and match these components for each person’s appropriate path—based on their role and depth of knowledge they need. Not only does this make it more elegantly to shift to role-based security training, but it also adheres to the latest research in education that favors moving from traditional, long-form courses to shorter, more consumable modules.

This is the approach that SI has taken to great effect for our clients, offering a greater degree of curriculum flexibility and customization without reinventing learning content for every role-based training path.

Establish a Security Training Plan for DevOps Teams

Gartner analysts predict that DevSecOps practices will become embedded into 80% of rapid development teams by 2021. In this day and age where every company is a software company, IT leaders need to develop a security training roadmap to help their teams keep up with cybersecurity best practices to ensure that applications don’t add unnecessary risk to the business.

Without detailed, prescriptive learning paths based on roles, organizations risk wasting their training dollars on generic knowledge. Many times companies simply require a number of hours for professional development in security without offering any guidance or prescriptions of what the course matter should include. As a result, employees often choose the easiest path to racking up those hours without gaining many appreciable skills or knowledge along the way.

Because there are so many moving pieces to building out training that grooms security champions across so many IT functions, security and IT leaders need to actually lay out a detailed plan for how they’re going to develop security skills relevant to every function of a DevOps team. They don’t have to go it alone.